Malware. What is it and why should I care?

Two years ago, there were nearly 3 million unique forms of malicious code, and thousands of new ones are discovered daily. The risk of being infected is greater than ever because every single possible data communication method can be used to transmit malware. And we know this is true because we so often see it in the news.

But what exactly is malware? Malware = MALicious softWARE.

Hackers use this software to disrupt computer operations, gather sensitive information, or gain unauthorized access to a computer system. Malware can also appear in the form of a script or code. The term ‘Malware’ is used to describe a variety of forms of hostile, intrusive, or annoying software or code.

You’ve probably heard of the terms “virus” and “worm”. Although they do different things and cause different types of problems, they are both a kind of malware. Another kind of malware is the Trojan horse.  Let’s take a closer look at these three.

Computer virus

  • A virus is a self-replicating program that spreads by inserting copies of itself into other executable code or documents. A computer virus behaves in a way similar to a biological virus, which spreads by inserting itself into living cells. While some are harmless or mere hoaxes, most computer viruses are considered malicious.


  • Like a virus, a worm is also a self-replicating program. A worm differs from a virus in that it propagates through computer networks without user intervention. Unlike a virus, it does not need to attach itself to an existing program. Many people confuse the terms “virus” and “worm”, using them both to describe any self-propagating program.

Trojan horses

  • A Trojan horse is a program which seems to be doing one thing, but is actually doing another. A Trojan horse can be used to set up a back door in a computer system so that the intruder can gain access.


What damage can malware do?

In the early days of the Internet, viruses were written as experiments or pranks. In some cases, the perpetrator did not realize how much harm his or her creations would do.

Today, malware is used primarily to steal sensitive personal, financial, or business information like social security numbers and credit card account information. The stolen information is then sold to other cybercriminals for a profit. The damage caused can range from a minor annoyance to a catastrophic disaster.


How can you get infected?

Unfortunately, there is no particular way to identify that your computer has been infected with malware. Anti-virus software might alert you that it has found a virus, but other forms of malware may go undetected.

Here are some of the ways you can get infected:

  1. Email Attachments – before opening, ensure that attachments you receive are legitimate
  2. Portable Media – any device that can store information can support malicious content
  3. Visiting Malicious Websites – any  legitimate website can be the victim of an attack, which in turn could leave you at risk
  4. Downloading Files from Websites – including generic files, software, plug-ins, movies, audio files, as well as mobile code such as ActiveX, JavaScript, Flash etc
  5. Participating in P2P File Sharing Services – peer-to-peer file sharing systems, especially when used to access illegal or infringing content
  6. Instant Messaging Clients – especially if unpatched, they allow hackers to upload or download files through holes in the client software.
  7. New Devices and Peripherals – although it’s rare, mobile phones, digital photo frames, etc can be compromised during manufacturing if the manufacturer’s system is infected.
  8. Social Networking Sites – offer several situations that could put you at risk of infection
  9. Social Engineering Attacks – that trick users into either giving up information or unwittingly performing tasks that result in a security breach
  10. Not Following  Security Guidelines and Policies – bypassing filters, using unauthorized outside storage devices, blocking software updates, using non-approve software clients, etc, increase the chance of becoming infected by malicious code


How to avoid becoming infected

The old wisdom rings true: an ounce of prevention is worth a pound of cure.

  1. Keep software up to date so that attackers can’t take advantage of known problems or vulnerabilities.
  2. Use and maintain anti-virus software and malware software.
  3. Use and maintain anti-spyware tools.
  4. Install a firewall to shield your computer or network from malicious or unnecessary Internet traffic.
  5. Add location-aware client firewall software on mobile devices including laptops to enforce tighter security when connected to any non-trusted network, such as a free Wi-Fi hotspot.
  6. Evaluate your security settings in your software, browsers, email programs and online accounts.
  7. Use strong passwords & change them periodically.
  8. Disconnect your computer from the Internet when you aren’t using it.
  9. Maintain backups of your files on CDs or DVDs so that you have saved copies in case you get infected.
  10. Follow good security practices and take appropriate precautions when using email and web browsers to reduce the risk that your actions will trigger an infection.